Abstract

Review Article

The Trans-zoonotic Virome interface: Measures to balance, control and treat epidemics

Vinod Nikhra*

Published: 09 April, 2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 020-027

The global virome: The viruses have a global distribution, phylogenetic diversity and host specificity. They are obligate intracellular parasites with single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA genomes, and afflict bacteria, plants, animals and human population. The viral infection begins when surface proteins bind to receptor proteins on the host cell surface, followed by internalisation, replication and lysis. Further, trans-species interactions of viruses with bacteria, small eukaryotes and host are associated with various zoonotic viral diseases and disease progression.

Virome interface and transmission: The cross-species transmission from their natural reservoir, usually mammalian or avian, hosts to infect human-being is a rare probability, but occurs leading to the zoonotic human viral infection. The factors like increased human settlements and encroachments, expanded travel and trade networks, altered wildlife and livestock practices, modernised and mass-farming practices, compromised ecosystems and habitat destruction, and global climate change have impact on the interactions between virome and its hosts and other species and act as drivers of trans-species viral spill-over and human transmission.

Zoonotic viral diseases and epidemics: The zoonotic viruses have caused various deadly pandemics in human history. They can be further characterized as either newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases, caused by pathogens that historically have infected the same host species, but continue to appear in new locations or in drug-resistant forms, or reappear after apparent control or elimination. The prevalence of zoonoses underlines importance of the animal–human–ecosystem interface in disease transmission. The present COVID-19 infection has certain distinct features which suppress the host immune response and promote the disease potential.

Treatment for epidemics like covid-19: It appears that certain nutraceuticals may provide relief in clinical symptoms to patients infected with encapsulated RNA viruses such as influenza and coronavirus. These nutraceuticals appear to reduce the inflammation in the lungs and help to boost type 1 interferon response to these viral infections. The human intestinal microbiota acting in tandem with the host’s defence and immune system, is vital for homeostasis and preservation of health. The integrity and balanced activity of the gut microbes is responsible for the protection from disease states including viral infections. Certain probiotics may help in improving the sensitivity and effectivity of immune system against viral infections. Currently, antiviral therapy is available only for a limited number of zoonotic viral infections. Because viruses are intracellular parasites, antiviral drugs are not able to deactivate or destroy the virus but can reduce the viral load by inhibiting replication and facilitating the host’s innate immune mechanisms to neutralize the virus.

Conclusion: Lessons from recent viral epidemics - Considering that certain nutraceuticals have demonstrated antiviral effects in both clinical and animal studies, further studies are required to establish their therapeutic efficacy. The components of nutraceuticals such as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid may be useful for developing a combo-therapy. The use of probiotics to enhance immunity and immune response against viral infections is a novel possibility. The available antiviral therapy is inefficient in deactivating or destroying the infecting viruses, may help in reducing the viral load by inhibiting replication. The novel efficient antiviral agents are being explored.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.abse.1001009 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Virome interface; Zoonotic viral transmission; Viral epidemics; COVID-19; MERS; SARS; Nutraceuticals; Probiotics; Anti-viral agents

References

  1. Paez-Espino D, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Pavlopoulos GA, Thomas AD, Huntemann M, et al. Uncovering Earth's virome. Nature. 2016; 536: 425–430. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27533034
  2. Edwards RA, Rohwer F. Viral metagenomics. Nature Rev Microbiol. 2005; 3: 504-510. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15886693
  3. Colson P, Richet H, Desnues C, Balique F, Moal V, et al. Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in Humans. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5: e10041. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386604
  4. Zhang T, Breitbart M, Lee WH, Run JQ, Wei CL, et al. RNA viral community in human faeces: prevalence of plant pathogenic viruses. PLoS Biol. 2006; 4: e3. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16336043
  5. Mackenzie JS, Jeggo M. Reservoirs and vectors of emerging viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2013; 3: 170-179. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23491947
  6. Carrol D, Watson B, Togami E, Daszak P, Mazet JA, et al. Building a global atlas of zoonotic viruses. Bull World Health. 2018; 96: 292–294. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29695886
  7. Olival KJ, Hosseini PR, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Ross N, Bogich TL, et al. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spill-over from mammals. Nature. 2017; 546: 646-650. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636590
  8. Morse SS, Mazet JA, Woolhouse M, Parrish CR, Carroll D, et al. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis. Lancet. 2012; 380: 1956-1965. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23200504
  9. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012; 380: 2095–2128. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245604
  10. Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA, Storeygard A, Balk D, et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 2008; 451: 990-993. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288193
  11. Fauci AS, Morens DM. The perpetual challenge of infectious diseases. N Engl J Med. 2012; 366: 454–461. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22296079
  12. Bolles M, Donaldson E, Baric R. SARS-CoV and emergent coronaviruses: Viral determinants of interspecies transmission. Curr Opin Virol. 2011; 1: 624–634. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180768
  13. Graham RL, Baric RS. Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: Mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission. J Virol. 2010; 84: 3134–3146. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906932
  14. Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. A decade after SARS: Strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses. Nature Rev Microbiol. 2013; 11: 836-848. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24217413
  15. Li F. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus. Antiviral Res. 2013; 100: 246–254. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23994189
  16. Johnson CK, Hitchens PL, Evans TS, Goldstein T, Thomas K, et al. Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 14830. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26445169
  17. McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ. Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2020. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32061635
  18. Brayden Humpherys B, Busath DD. Anti-Influenza Nutraceuticals: Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Effects. Advances in Complementary & Alternative medicine. 2019; 4.
  19. To EE, Luong R, Diao J, O' Leary JJ, Brooks DA, et al. Novel endosomal NOX2 oxidase inhibitor ameliorates pandemic influenza A virus‐induced lung inflammation in mice. Respirology. 2019; 24: 1011–1017. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30884042
  20. Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J. Glucan supplementation enhances the immune response against an influenza challenge in mice. Ann Transl Med. 2015; 3: 22. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738142
  21. Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, Dunne E. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019; 42; 361-365. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30670267
  22. Li N, Ma W-T, Pang M, Fan QL, Hua JL. The Commensal Microbiota and Viral Infection: A Comprehensive Review. Front Immunol. 2019; 10: 1551.PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31333675 .
  23. Lehtoranta L, Pitkäranta A, Korpela R. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014; 33: 1289-1302. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24638909
  24. O’Toole PW, Marchesi JR, Hill C. Next-generation probiotics: the spectrum from probiotics to live biotherapeutics. Nat Microbiol. 2017; 2: 17057. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28440276
  25. Maeda N, Nakamura R, Hirose Y, Murosaki S, Yamamoto Y, et al. Oral administration of heat-killed lactobacillus plantarum l-137 enhances protection against influenza virus infection by stimulation of type I interferon production in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009; 9; 11-22. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19410659
  26. Yang Y, Song H, Wang L, Palissa C, Esch B, et al. Antiviral Effects of a Probiotic Metabolic Products against Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus. Arch Virol. 2013; 158: 799-807. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23188495
  27. Harata G, He F, Hiruta N, Kawase M, Kubota A, et al. Intranasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG protects mice from H1N1 influenza virus infection by regulating respiratory immune responses. Lett Appl Microbiol, 2010; 50; 597–602. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20438620
  28. Horie A, Tomita Y, Ohshio K, Fujiwara D, Fujii T. Characterization of genomic DNA of lactic acid bacteria for activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. BMC Microbiol. 2019; 19: 88. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31060586
  29. Kumar R, Seo BJ, Mun MR, Kim CJ, Lee I, et al. Putative probiotic lactobacillus spp. from porcine gastrointestinal tract inhibit transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus and enteric bacterial pathogens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010; 42: 1855-1860. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623187
  30. Chai W, Burwinkel M, Wang Z, Palissa C, Esch B, et al. Antiviral effects of a probiotic enterococcus faecium, strain against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. Arch\Virol. 2013; 158: 799-807. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23188495
  31. Lu W, Feng Y, Jing F, Han Y, Lyu N, et al. Association between gut microbiota and CD4 recovery in HIV-1 infected patients. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 1451. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30034377
  32. Razonable RR. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011; 86: 1009–1026. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964179
  33. Lin GL, McGinley JP, Drysdale SB, Pollard AJ. Epidemiology and Immune Pathogenesis of Viral Sepsis. Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 2147. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30319615
  34. Influenza (Flu) Antiviral Drugs and Related Information.

Figures:

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 1

Figure 5

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

  • Growth performance of selected Moringa oleifera seed origins in North Florida
    Oluwaseunfunmi Samuel Olaborode*, Cassel Samuel Gardner and Oghenekome Urakpo Onokpise Oluwaseunfunmi Samuel Olaborode*,Cassel Samuel Gardner ,Oghenekome Urakpo Onokpise. Growth performance of selected Moringa oleifera seed origins in North Florida. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. 2022: doi: 10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001066; 6: 001-007
  • Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh
    Ausraful Islam*, Ashika Akbar Trisha, Md. Safiul Ahad Sardar, Mohammady Akbor, Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Ashraf Zaman Faruk, Sheikh Muhammad Khaled Sharif, Zannatun Nahar and Anisuzzaman Ausraful Islam*,Ashika Akbar Trisha,Md. Safiul Ahad Sardar,Mohammady Akbor,Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan,Md. Sazzad Hossain,Md. Ashraf Zaman Faruk,Sheikh Muhammad Khaled Sharif,Zannatun Nahar,Anisuzzaman. Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh. Insights Vet Sci. 2021: doi: 10.29328/journal.ivs.1001028; 5: 001-007
  • Impact of mandibular advancement device in quantitative electroencephalogram and sleep quality in mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea
    Cuspineda-Bravo ER*, García- Menéndez M, Castro-Batista F, Barquín-García SM, Cadelo-Casado D, Rodríguez AJ and Sharkey KM Cuspineda-Bravo ER*,García- Menéndez M,Castro-Batista F,Barquín-García SM,Cadelo-Casado D,Rodríguez AJ,Sharkey KM. Impact of mandibular advancement device in quantitative electroencephalogram and sleep quality in mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Neurosci Neurol Disord. 2020: doi: 10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001041; 4: 088-098
  • Minimal treatment options with one-piece implants
    Henri Diederich*, Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje and El Moheb Mohamad Henri Diederich*,Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje,El Moheb Mohamad. Minimal treatment options with one-piece implants. Arch Case Rep. 2021: doi: 10.29328/journal.acr.1001049; 5: 014-020
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): A review
    Abdu Hussen Ali* Abdu Hussen Ali*. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): A review. Ann Adv Chem. 2022: doi: 10.29328/journal.aac.1001026; 6: 010-020

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More